Sexual orientation change efforts SOCE are methods used in attempts to change the sexual orientation of homosexual and bisexual people to heterosexuality. According to the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation, "there are no studies of adequate scientific rigor to conclude whether or not Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity methods work to change sexual orientation.
The longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences, and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality and bisexuality are per se normal Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity positive variations of human sexual orientation.
There is a large body of research evidence that indicates that being gay, lesbian or bisexual is Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity with normal mental health and social adjustment.
Indeed, such interventions are ethically suspect because they can be harmful to the psychological well-being of those who attempt them; clinical observations and self-reports indicate that many individuals who unsuccessfully attempt to change their sexual orientation experience considerable psychological distress. For these reasons, no major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public treatments that purport to change sexual orientation.
SOCE have been controversial due to tensions between the values held by some right-wing faith-based organizations, on the one hand, and those held by LGBT rights organizations, human rights and civil rights organizations, and other faith-based organizations, as well as professional and scientific organizations, on the other. Some individuals and groups have, contrary to global scientific research and consensus, promoted the idea of homosexuality as symptomatic of developmental defects or spiritual and moral failings and have argued that SOCE, including psychotherapy and religious efforts, could alter homosexual feelings and behaviors.
Medical attempts to change homosexuality included surgical treatments such as hysterectomy ovariectomy clitoridectomy castration  vasectomy pudic nerve surgery,  and lobotomy. Richard von Krafft-Ebing was a German-Austrian psychiatrist and one of the founders of scientific sexology. His first systematic work on sexual pathology was published in in a German psychiatric journal. His influential work, Psychopathia Sexualis was published in Numerous expanded German editions followed, and it was widely translated.
Krafft-Ebing became a proponent of the sickness model of homosexuality. Krafft-Ebing believed that hypnosis was therefore the "only means of salvation"  in most cases. He stated that he knew of only a single case in which self-hypnosis had Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity successful, and that hypnotic suggestion by another person was usually necessary to change homosexuality.
Krafft-Ebing wrote about this method that " He rejected castration as Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity cure for homosexuality, and the internment of gay people in asylums, except in cases involving sex crimes. Krafft-Ebing cautioned that the success or failure of treatments for homosexuality proved nothing about its Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity. He defended the right of patients to receive such treatment.
Krafft-Ebing criticised several objections to medical treatment of homosexuality, including the charges that it was ineffective and that it gave an opportunity "to tainted individuals to propagate their perversions".
In the last two decades of the 19th century, a different view began to predominate in medical and psychiatric circles, judging such behavior as indicative of a type of person with a defined and relatively stable sexual orientation. In the late 19th and 20th centuries, pathological models of homosexuality were standard.
Inthe World Health Organization replaced its categorization of homosexuality as a mental illness with the diagnosis of ego-dystonic homosexuality.
At that time APA stressed that removing homosexuality from the list of psychiatric disorders does not mean it is "normal" or as valuable as heterosexuality. They also stated that modern methods of treatment allow interested homosexuals to change their sexual orientation with a significant degree of success. No major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation.
Christian right political groups have marketed sexual orientation change directly to consumers. A majority of people who attempt to change their sexual orientation come from conservative religious backgrounds. Many people may seek to change their sexual orientation as a way to avoid behaviors which they perceive as being associated with homosexuality,  such as non-monogamy. An article in the American Medical Association 's Journal of Ethics argues that clinicians who care for adolescents face a "common challenge" of parents seeking interventions to change the sexual orientation of their teenage children.
The article states that adolescents are increasingly comfortable in revealing their same-sex attraction to their parents because of the "generational shift in views of sexual orientation" due in part to increasing acceptance of LGBT rights and same-sex marriage.
An APA task force found that people often sought out SOCE due to a a lack of other sources of social support; b a desire for active coping and c access to methods of sexual orientation identity exploration and reconstruction. These pressures may lead people to feel forced into attempting to change their sexual orientation. Types of behavior therapy used to change sexual orientation include aversion therapycovert sensitization and systematic desensitization. A series of experiments appeared promising, and the practice became popular, but when reports were shown to be flawed, it fell out of favour.
Bioenergetics is a therapeutic technique developed by Alexander Lowen and John Pierrakoswho were students of Wilhelm Reich. It has been used to attempt to convert gay people to heterosexuality by Richard Cohenwho has been called one of America's leading practitioners of conversion therapy.
The American Psychological Association defines conversion therapy or reparative therapy as therapy aimed at changing sexual orientation. Aversive conditioning involving electric shock or nausea-inducing drugs was practiced beforeas was sex therapy  though there are some reports of aversive treatments through unlicensed practice as late as the s.
The ethics guidelines of major U. It may be harmful if the client is egosyntonic and does not wish to change their sexual orientation. A task force commissioned by the APA found that ex-gay groups act like support groups, in that they help counteract and buffer Minority Stressmarginalization, and isolation. Most ex-gay groups focus on abstaining from homosexual relationships "Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity" than a complete sexual orientation change from homosexual to heterosexual.
Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity with a sexual relationship disorder have difficulty forming or maintaining a relationship because of their sexual orientation. A significant number of men and women experience conflict surrounding homosexual expression within a mixed-orientation marriage.
Some people with unwanted homosexual attractions turn to their faith for help. Some conservative Christians believe that homosexuality is a result of a broken world and that faith can change orientation. Syntonic therapy, a method developed by Robert Kronemeyer, was based partly on the work of Wilhelm Reich.
Kronemeyer rejected some earlier methods that were used in attempts to change homosexuality, including lobotomyelectroshock treatment, and Aesthetic During the Holocaustan estimated 5, to 15, gay men were imprisoned Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity concentration camps on the grounds that male homosexuality was deemed incompatible with Nazism.
Some imprisoned homosexuals faced human experimentation by Nazi doctors who sought to find a "medical cure" for homosexuality. No scientific knowledge has been yielded from these experiments. He made incisions in their groin and implanted a metal tube that released testosterone over a prolonged period, as he believed that a Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity of testosterone was the cause of homosexuality.
Although some of the men claimed to have become heterosexual, the results are largely unreliable as many are assumed to have stated they were "cured" in order to be released from the camp. Those who did Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity show improvement were determined to be "chronic" or "incurable" homosexuals. Ex-gay organizations expressed concerns about the lack of representation of pro-reparative-therapy perspectives on the task force, while alleging that anti-reparative-therapy perspectives were amply represented.
The task force reached the following findings: Recent studies of participants in Sexual Orientation Change Efforts SOCE identify a population of individuals who experience serious distress related to same sex sexual attractions. These individuals having pursued a variety of religious and secular efforts intended to help them to change their sexual orientation. To date, the research has not fully addressed age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, disability, language, and socioeconomic status in the population of distressed individuals.
Scientifically rigorous older work in this area e. Some individuals appeared to learn how to ignore or limit their attractions. However, this was much less likely to be true for people whose sexual attractions were initially limited to people of the same sex. Distress and depression were exacerbated. Although there is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation, some individuals modified their sexual orientation identity i.
Based on the available data, additional claims about the meaning of those outcomes are scientifically unsupported. Inthe Pan American Health Organization the North and South American branch of the World Health Organization released a statement cautioning against "services that purport to 'cure' people with non-heterosexual sexual orientations" as they "lack medical justification and represent a serious threat to the health and well-being of affected people", and noted that "there is a professional consensus that homosexuality is a normal natural variation of human sexuality and cannot be regarded as a pathological condition".
The organization further called "on governments, academic institutions, professional associations and the media to expose these practices and to promote respect for diversity. Additionally, the organization recommended that such malpractices be denounced and Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity to sanctions and penalties under national legislation, as they constitute a violation of the ethical principles of health care and violate human rights that are protected by international and regional agreements.
The American Psychiatric Association also states: Firstly, they are at odds with the scientific position of the American Psychiatric Association which has maintained, sincethat homosexuality per se, is not a mental disorder. The theories of "reparative" therapists define homosexuality as either a developmental arrest, a severe form of psychopathology, or some combination of both. In recent years, noted practitioners of "reparative" therapy have openly integrated older psychoanalytic theories that pathologize homosexuality with traditional religious beliefs condemning homosexuality.
The earliest scientific criticisms of the early theories and religious beliefs informing "reparative" or conversion therapies came primarily from sexology researchers. Later, criticisms emerged from psychoanalytic sources as well.
There has also been an increasing body of religious thought arguing against traditional, biblical interpretations that condemn homosexuality and which underlie religious types of "reparative" therapy. There is no sound scientific evidence that sexual orientation can be changed.
Furthermore so-called treatments of homosexuality as recommended by NARTH create a setting in which prejudice and discrimination can flourish. The Royal College of Psychiatrists holds the view that lesbian, gay and bisexual people should be regarded as valued members of society who have exactly similar rights and responsibilities as all other citizens.
In Australiathe Australian Psychological Society states: Some therapists who undertake this kind of therapy report that they have changed their client's sexual from homosexual to heterosexual in treatment.
Close scrutiny of these reports shows that many of the claims come from organisations with an ideological perspective on sexual orientation rather Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity from mental health researchers.
Also, the treatments and their outcomes are poorly documented and the length of time that clients are followed up after the treatment is sometimes too short to be a true reflection of the outcome. In other cases it has been shown that individuals can be assisted to live a heterosexual lifestyle, but that their sexual orientation remains unchanged.
In other words, their pattern of arousal to members of the same sex does not alter. The Australian Psychological Society acknowledges the lack of scientific evidence for the usefulness of conversion therapy, and notes that it can in fact be harmful for the individual. In ChinaWestern psychiatry and psychology were imported during a "Westernization Movement" in the late 19th century.
At that time, the West viewed homosexuality as a mental disorder, and that became the prevailing view in China as well. During this period, homosexual sexual behavior was grounds for persecution, a marked change from the attitude of general but not total acceptance found in preth-century China. These views lasted throughout the s, despite changed theoretical models of sexuality orientation in the West, during a period when the Chinese government held a "closed-door" policy on information about human sexuality.
Afterinformation became more available, and views began to change. In Indiapsychiatry and psychology scholars have "preserved an almost complete silence on the subject of homosexuality". In Italylittle research has been conducted in the mental health community on homosexuality. Early work tended to describe homosexuality as a pathology or a developmental arrest. More recently, attitudes have begun to change: In Germany
Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity, the psychiatry, psychology, and sexology establishment from the early 20th century viewed homosexuality as pathological.
However, following the increased visibility of the homosexual community during the AIDS epidemic of the late Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity and the declassification of homosexuality as a mental disorder in the ICD, non-pathological, rather than pathological, models of homosexuality became mainstream.
Japan 's psychiatric body removed homosexuality from its list of psychiatric disorders in A male mouse's "Chemical imbalance causes homosexuality in christianity" to mate with either a male or a female is determined by the brain chemical serotonin, scientists report in a new study. Note that the Bible never speaks of homosexual orientation; it condemns Chemical imbalances do happen, however this is not what causes.
The Bible affirms monogamous lifelong marriage, and condemns in human relationships, including sexual relationships, is caused by sin.