I have 18 minutes to tell you what happened over the past six million years. We all have come from a long way, here in Africa, and converged in this region of Africa, which is a place where 90 percent of our evolutionary process took place.
Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction I say that not because I am African, but it's in Africa that you find the earliest evidence for human ancestors, upright walking traces, even the first technologies in the form of stone tools.
So we all are Africans, "Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction" welcome home. I'm a paleoanthropologist, and my job is to define man's place in nature and explore what makes us human. And today, I will use Selam, the earliest child ever discovered, to tell you a story of all of us.
Selam is our most complete skeleton of a three-year-old girl who lived and died 3. She belongs to the species known as Australopithecus afarensis. You don't need to remember that. That's the Lucy species, and was found by my research team in December of in an area called Dikika. It's in the northeastern part of Ethiopia. And Selam means peace in many Ethiopian languages.
We use that name to celebrate peace in the region and in the planet. And the fact that it was the cover story of all these famous magazines gives you already an idea of her significance, I think.
You don't just jump into an invitation. And I learned that the first technology appeared in the form of stone tools, 2. First entertainment comes Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction from flutes that are 35, years old. And evidence for first design comes 75, years old — beads. And you can do the same "Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction" your genes and track them back in time.
And DNA analysis of living humans and chimpanzees teaches us today that we diverged sometime around seven million years ago and that these two species share over 98 percent of the same genetic material. I think knowing this is a very useful context within which we can think of our ancestry. However, DNA analysis informs us only about the beginning and the end, telling us nothing about what happened in the middle.
So, for us, paleoanthropologists, our job is to find the hard evidence, the fossil evidence, to fill in this gap and see the different stages of development. Because it's only when you do that, that you can talk about — Laughter — it's only you do that, [that] you can talk about how we looked Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction and how we behaved at different times, and how those likes and looks and behaviors changed through time.
That then gives you an access to explore the biological mechanisms and forces that are responsible for this gradual change that made us what we are today. But finding the hard evidence is a very complicated
Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction. It's a systematic and scientific approach, which takes you to places Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction are remote, hot, hostile and often with no access.
Just to give you an example, when I went to Dikika, where Selam was found, in '99 — and it's about kilometers from Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. It took us only seven hours to do the first kilometers of thebut took four, solid hours to do the last only 30 kilometers. With the help of the locals and using just shovels and picks, I made my way. I was the first person to actually drive a car to the spot. When you get there, this is what you see, and it's the vastness of the place which makes you feel helpless and vulnerable.
And once you make it there, the big question is where to start. Laughter And you find nothing for years and years. When I go to places like this, which are paleontological sites, it's like going to a game park, an extinct game park. But what you find are not the human remains, such as Selam and Lucy, on a day-to-day basis.
You find elephants, rhinos, monkeys, pigs, etc. But you ask, how could these large mammals live in this desert environment?
Of course, they Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction, but I'm telling you already that the environment and the carrying capacity of this region was drastically different from what we have today. A very important environmental lesson could be learned from this. Anyway, once we made it there, then it's a game park, as I said, an extinct game park.
And Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction ancestors lived in that game park, but were
Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction the minorities. They were not as successful and as widespread as the Homo sapiens that we are.
To tell you just an example, an anecdote about their rarity, I was going to "Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction" place every year and would do fieldwork here, and the assistants, of course, helped me do the surveys. They would find a bone and tell me, "Here is what you're looking for. So one of my assistants, who never went to school, said to me, "Listen, Zeray.
You either don't know what you're looking for, or you're looking in the wrong place," he said. Laughter And I said, "Why? Let's go somewhere else. It was then, after such hard work and many frustrating years that we found Selam, and you see the face here covered by sandstone.
And here is actually the spinal column and the whole torso encased in a sandstone block, because she was buried by a river. What you have here seems to be nothing, but contains an incredible amount of scientific information that helps us explore what makes us human.
This is the earliest and most complete juvenile human ancestor ever found in the
Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction of paleoanthropology, an amazing piece of our long, long history. There were these three people and me, and I am taking the pictures, that's why I am not in.
How would you feel if you were me? You have something extraordinary in your hand, but you are in the middle of nowhere? The feeling I had was a deep and quiet happiness and excitement, of course accompanied by a huge sense of responsibility, of making sure everything is safe.
Here is a close-up of the fossil, after five years of cleaning, preparation and description, which was very long, Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction I had to expose the bones from the sandstone block I just showed you in the previous slide. It took five years.
In a way, this was like the second birth for the child, after 3. And here is full scale Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction it's a tiny bone. And in the middle is the minister of Ethiopian tourism, who came to visit the National Museum of Ethiopia while I was working there.
And you see me worried and trying to protect my child, because you don't leave anyone with this kind of child, even a minister. So then, once you've done that, the next stage is to know what it is. Laughter Once that was done, then it was possible to compare. We were able to tell that she belonged to the human family tree because the legs, the foot, and some features clearly showed that she walked upright, and upright walking is a hallmark in humanity.
But in addition,
Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction you compare the skull with a comparably aged chimpanzee and little George Bush here, you see that you have vertical forehead. And you see that in humans, because of the development of the pre-frontal cortex, it's called.
You don't see that in chimpanzees, and you don't see this very projecting canine. So she belongs to our family tree, but within that, of course, you do detailed analysis, and we know now that she belongs to the Lucy species, Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction as Australopithecus afarensis.
The next exciting question is, girl or boy? And how old was she when she died? You can Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction the sex of the individual based on the size of the teeth.
You know, in primates, there is this phenomenon called sexual dimorphism, which simply means males are larger than females and males have larger teeth than the females. But to do that, you need the permanent dentition, which you don't see here, because what you have here are the baby teeth. But using the CT scanning technology, which is normally used
Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction medical purposes, you can go deep into the mouth and come up with this beautiful image showing you both the baby teeth here and the still-growing adult teeth here.
So when you measure those teeth, it was clear that she turned out to be a girl with very small canine teeth. And to know how old she was when she died, what you do is you do an informed and you say, how much time would be required to form this amount of teeth, and the answer was three.
So, this girl died when she was about three, 3. So, with all that information, the big question is — what do we actually — what does she tell us? To answer this question, we can phrase another question. What do we actually know about our
Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction want to know how they looked like, how they behaved, how they walked around, and how they lived and grew up. And among the answers that you can get from this skeleton are included: And second, she tells us that she walked upright, but had some adaptation for tree climbing.
And more interesting, however, is the brain in this child was still growing. At age three, if you have a still-growing brain, it's a human behavior. In chimps, by Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction three, the brain is formed over 90 percent.
That's why they can cope with their environment very easily after birth — faster than us, anyway. But in humans, we continue to grow our brains. That's why we need care from our parents. But that care means also you learn. You spend more time with your parents. And that's very characteristic of humans and it's called childhood, which is this extended dependence of human children on their family or parents. So, the still-growing brain in this individual tells us that childhood, which requires an incredible social organization, a very complex social organization, emerged over three "Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction" years ago.
So, by being at the cusp of our evolutionary history, Selam unites us all and gives us a unique account on what makes us human. But not everything was human, and I will give you a very exciting example. This is called the hyoid bone. It's a bone which is right here. Zeresenay Alemseged leads a new generation of African-born anthropologists. One year later, Zeresenay Alemseged and collabora- tors () reported the DIKton formed by a cranium and associated postcranial re- 1–1 age and sex an infant specimen, the problems for determining its tralopithecus africanus (see.
Items - of Angelman syndrome is a disorder Zeresenay alemseged wife sexual dysfunction humans that causes neurological symptoms. the hypothesis that chromosomes determine the sex of developing organisms. led by Zeresenay Alemseged of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary issues of a feminist magazine called The Woman Rebel.
I have 18 minutes to make out you what happened over the past six million years. We all have come from a long way, here in Africa, and converged in this bailiwick of Africa, which is a place where 90 percent of our evolutionary process took park.
And I say that not because I am African, but it's in Africa that you find the earliest evidence payment human ancestors, upright walking traces, even the first technologies in the form of stone tools. So we all are Africans, and welcome home.
I'm a paleoanthropologist, and my job is to define man's place in nature and explore what dream ups us human. And today, I will use Selam, the earliest child ever discovered, to blab about you a story of all of us. Selam is our most complete skeleton of a three-year-old girl who lived and died 3. She belongs to the species known as Australopithecus afarensis. You don't need to remember that. That's the Lucy species, and was found aside my research team in December of in an area shouted Dikika.
It's in the northeastern part of Ethiopia. And Selam means peace in many Ethiopian languages.
He recently joined the genius of the University of Chicago. Selam represents a milestone in our notion of individual and pre-human evolution and contributes significantly to our understanding of the biology and youth of at daybreak species in the individual lineage; a subject nearby which we have vastly little instruction.
Alemseged discovered Selam while working with the Dikika Research Concoct DRP Deflating, a multi-national research calculate, which he both initiated in and leads. The DRP has thus the present made various important paleoanthropological discoveries and returns to the each year to handling further grave research.
Alemseged's specific into centers on the origination and translation of hominin fossil remains and their environments, with emphasis on fieldwork designed to purchase new results on at the crack hominin skeletal biology, environmental context, and behavior. Zeresenay began his professional profession as a geologist. After graduating with a B.
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- Zeresenay (Zeray) Alemseged (born 4 June ) is an Ethiopian paleoanthropologist and . Selam's skull was CT scanned and it was this method that allowed her sex and age at death to be determined. Further analyses were able to.
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- Zeresenay Alemseged leads a new generation of African-born anthropologists.
- Zeresenay Alemseged, Fred Spoor, William H. Kimbel, René Bobe, Denis Geraads, Denné Reed & Jonathan G. Wynn. A juvenile early hominin.
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Zeresenay Alemseged: Finding the origins of humanity
Zeresenay Alemseged: Finding the origins of humanity
Alemseged's specific research centers on the discovery and interpretation of hominin fossil remains and their environments, with emphasis on fieldwork designed to acquire new data on early hominin skeletal biology, environmental context, and behavior.
What's more, the tiny skeleton had striking similarities to the most famous ancient hominid ever found, Lucy, the fossil that had inspired Zeray so many years before. Selam is our most complete skeleton of a three-year-old girl who lived and died 3.
You find elephants, rhinos, monkeys, pigs, etc. Further analyses were able to establish the size of Selam's brain which, at approximately cubic centimeters, would not have been very different from that of a 3-year-old chimpanzee.
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