A semen analysis plural: It is done to help evaluate male fertilitywhether for those seeking pregnancy or verifying the success of vasectomy. Depending on the measurement method, just a few characteristics may be evaluated such Ph and male sperm with a home kit or many characteristics may be evaluated generally by a diagnostic laboratory.
Collection techniques and precise measurement method may influence results. The most common reasons for laboratory semen analysis in humans are as part of a couple's infertility investigation and after a vasectomy to verify that the procedure was successful.
It is also commonly used for testing human donors for sperm donationand for animals semen analysis is commonly used in stud farming and farm animal breeding. Occasionally a man will have a semen analysis done as part of routine pre-pregnancy testing. At the laboratory level this is rare, as most healthcare providers will not test the Ph and male sperm and sperm unless specifically requested or there is a strong suspicion of a pathology in one of these areas discovered during the medical history or during the physical examination.
Such testing is very expensive and time-consuming, and in the U. In other countries, such as Germany, the testing is covered by all insurances.
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The characteristics measured by semen Ph and male sperm are only some of the factors in semen quality. Different methods used for semen collection are masturbationcondom collection and epididymal extraction, etc. The sample should never be obtained through coitus interruptus for several reasons: Some part of ejaculation could be lost, bacterial contamination could happen and the acid vaginal pH could be detrimental for sperm motility.
The optimal sexual abstinence for semen sample obtaining is from 2—7 days.
The most common way to obtain a semen sample is through masturbation and the best place to obtain it is in the clinic where the analysis will take place in order to avoid temperature changes during the transport that can be lethal for some spermatozoa.
Once the sample is obtained, it must be put directly in a sterile plastic recipient never in a conventional preservative since they have chemical substances as lubricants or spermicides that could damage the sample and be handed in the clinic for it to be studied within the Ph and male sperm hour. Examples of parameters measured in a semen analysis are: Sperm count, or sperm concentration to avoid confusion with total sperm countmeasures the concentration of sperm in a man's ejaculate, distinguished from total sperm countwhich is the sperm count multiplied with volume.
Over 15 million sperm per milliliter is considered normal, according to the WHO in A vasectomy is considered successful if the sample is azoospermic zero sperm of any kind found. Chips for home use are emerging that can give an accurate estimation of sperm count after three samples taken on different days.
Such a chip may measure the concentration of sperm in a semen sample against a control liquid filled with polystyrene beads.
A more specified measure Ph and male sperm motility gradewhere the Ph and male sperm of sperm are divided into four different grades: Morphology is a predictor of success in fertilizing oocytes during in vitro fertilization.
Also, sperm cells with tail-tip swelling patterns generally have lower frequency of aneuploidy. A motile sperm organelle morphology examination MSOME is a particular morphologic investigation wherein an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power optics and enhanced by digital imaging is used to achieve a magnification above x, which is much higher than the magnification used habitually by embryologists in spermatozoa selection for intracytoplasmic sperm injection x to x According to one lab test manual semen volumes between 2.
A caveat to this is be sure it has been at least 48 hours since the last ejaculation to time of sample collection. The human ejaculate is mostly composed of water. One way of ensuring that a man produces more ejaculate  is to drink more liquids. Men also produce more seminal fluid after lengthy sexual stimulation and arousal.
Reducing the frequency of sex and masturbation helps increase semen volume. Sexually transmitted diseases also affect the production of semen. Men who are infected  with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV produce lower semen volume.
Semen normally has a whitish-gray color. It tends to get a yellowish tint as a man ages. Semen color is also influenced by the food we eat: Hematospermia is a rare condition. Semen that has a deep yellow color or is greenish in appearance may be due to medication.
Brown semen is mainly a result of infection and inflammation of the prostate gland, urethraepididymis and seminal vesicles. Fructose level in the semen may be analysed to determine the amount of energy available to the semen for moving.
Absence of fructose may indicate a problem with the seminal vesicles. According to one lab test manual normal pH range is 7. A basic ejaculate higher pH value may indicate an infection.
The liquefaction Ph and male sperm the process when the Ph and male sperm formed by proteins from the seminal vesicles is broken up and the semen becomes more liquid. It normally takes less than 20 minutes for the sample to change from a thick gel into a liquid. In the NICE guidelines, a liquefaction time within 60 minutes is regarded as within normal ranges.
Thus, it is a combination of sperm count and motility. With a straw  or a vial volume of 0. This is equal to 8 straws or vials 0. Total motile spermatozoa TMS  or total motile sperm count TMSC  is a combination of sperm count, motility and volume, measuring how many million sperm cells in an entire ejaculate are motile.
Use of approximately 20 million sperm of motility grade c or d in ICI, and 5 million ones in IUI may be an approximate recommendation.
The sample may also be tested for white blood cells. A high level of white blood cells in semen is called leucospermia and may indicate an infection. Apart from the semen quality itself, there are various methodological factors that may influence the results, giving Ph and male sperm to inter-method variation.
Compared to samples obtained from masturbation, semen samples from collection condoms have higher total sperm counts, Ph and male sperm motility, and percentage of sperm with normal morphology [ citation needed ].
For this reason, they are believed to give more accurate results when used for semen analysis. If the results from a man's first sample are subfertile, they must be verified with at least two more analyses. At least 2 to 4 weeks must be allowed between each analysis. A man may prefer to produce his sample at home rather than at the clinic.
The site of semen collection does not affect the results of a semen analysis. Volume can be determined by measuring the weight of the sample container, knowing the mass of the empty container. Sperm count and morphology can be calculated by microscopy.
Sperm count can also be estimated by kits that measure the amount of a sperm-associated protein, and are suitable for home use. Most systems are based on image analysisbut alternative methods exist such as tracking cell movement on a digitizing tablet. Nowadays, there are CASA systems, based on image analysis and using new techniques, with near perfect results, and doing full analysis in a few seconds.
Ph and male sperm some techniques, sperm concentration and motility measurements are at least as reliable as current manual methods. Raman spectroscopy has made progress in its ability to perform characterization, identification and localization of sperm nuclear DNA damage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ph and male sperm sperm stained for semen quality testing in the clinical laboratory.
Stonybrook, State University of New York. Archived from the original on October 17, Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 5e 5 ed. Methods in Molecular Biology.